# 英语写作重点短句和词汇示例收集

写作一直是自己的弱项，现在想要进行一个非常系统化的训练，不然文章完全写不出来。根据我自己的感受，写好文章需要具备的素质是：

- 能够自如的介绍清楚技术方面的内容，比如能够介绍清楚方程的定义、推导以及求解等，能够说清楚我们解决问题的思路以及结果。
- 能够系统的总结和概括自己文章的主要内容、创新点
- 能够对研究的动机、背景做出非常系统、简洁的描述
- 相关语句比较流畅，用词精准

这些做起来不是一蹴而就，需要多看、多学、多训练。我在这里对一些非常重要的短句、词汇以及长句表达做一些收集，便于以后写文章参考。

## 重要词汇

regulation ：管理，控制

enduring： 持久的,不朽的

exclusively： 专门地;专有地

unprecedented： 前所未有的, 无前例的

paradigmatic： 范例的

a plethora of phenomena： 种类繁多的现象

tailoring the emission： 调整发射

## 典型专业表述收集

- Quantum optics is an exciting field, in which many fundamental experiments,
**revealing the peculiarities of quantum mechanics**, have been conducted. - To achieve such a capability, an important approach is to use the so-called waveguide quantum electrodynamics (QED) system, where one
**confines the photons to a waveguide**that is strongly coupled to**a local quantum system**

## 近期进展表述

Recently,

**there has been an increased activity**in analyzing the properties of photons propagating in a waveguide coupled to a qubit—a two-level quantum mechanical systemThe rapid experimental developments, in turn, have motivated significant theoretical efforts

## 一些专业模型的解释和描述

- Experimentally,
**the waveguides that have been used for this purpose include**optical fibers , metallic plasmonic nanowires , photonic crystal waveguides , and microwave transmission line .**The local quantum system typically incorporates a variety of quantum multi-level systems such a**s actual atoms , quantum dots, or microwave qubits , where the strong nonlinearity of these multi-level systems forms the basis for strong photon-photon interactions. These multi-level systems moreover can be embedded in cavity structures to further control their nonlinear propertie

## 一些模型的典型描述

- We start the formal description of the method by defining the main resource, namely, signal and idler photons in an entangled state.

## 如何更加专业的描述推导过程

描述xx可以变成yy：

- The excitation amplitude of the atom in the receiving node thus
**turns out** - By definition the success rate is the maximum of xx, and
**becomes** - whose
**formal solution can be expressed in a matrix form as follows** - The solution
**reduces to** - Then xx can be expressed as follows
- Where in the last step we use the relation e(t) =−i√κcN (t) given in Appendix
- Then Eq. (C3)
**is further altered to give** - The nontrivial components of the electric field of a focused RPB (illuminating upwards) in cylindrical coordinates takes the form
- Correspondingly, however,
**the governing equation (S15) should be modified to a system containing equations**for f0,i of the ith metal part as follows: **By employing**the following transformation, the original Hamiltonian is transformed into two decoupled ‘‘one-mode’’ Hamiltonians,- We could thus equivalently solve a system described by， where
- To do so, we start by recalling the definition of the input field operator
- where in the second line we used the fact that
- Now that we know the relationship between the inputoutput formalism and the scattering theory, let us now calculate the S-matrix elements
- the input-output equations appropriate for the Hamiltonian in (1) are
- The single-photon transport properties are described by the single-photon S matrix, which is related to the input and output operator by
- The quantity 〈0|aout(t)|k+〉 can be obtained by sandwiching (10) and (12) between the two states 〈0| and |k+〉
- For subsequent calculations, we also define
- The crucial step in the derivation above is (15), which takes advantage of the single-excitation nature of the input state.

## 如何更加专业的看图说话

### 示意图

Schematic

**depicting**the coupling relationships between states in the two-photon emission dynamics.Schematic

**diagram**of a complete state-transfer process between two identical chain-coupled MRR-based quantum nodes;**Schematic depiction**of the temporal shaping method:The system of interest in this paper is schematically shown in Fig. 1: a whispering-gallery-type resonator interacting with a two-level atom is side coupled to a single-mode waveguide.

Single photons emerge from A and B and

**impinge simultaneousl**y on a beam splitter.The principal scheme of the method is presented in Fig. 1.

### 多参数变化的描述

- Map of the atomic excitation spectrum as g and h are
**varied** - Anticrossing between the atomic and cavity resonances as h is continuously varied.
- Background fluorescence
**as a function of**x and y at various energy

### 图的整体说明

- In Fig. 3, we present calculations for the same input and output modes as in Fig. 2 with the incoming pulse prepared in a coherent state
- Experimental results obtained for parallel polarization are displayed in Fig. 3(a)
Moreover, as shown in Fig. 3(b), we resolve a pronounced oscillation of the correlation function, starting with a minimum

## 表达什么是必要的

When evaluating the effect of losses on the fidelity of the logic gate, it is

**imperative**to normalize the temporal shape of the output states.**imperative**：必要的, 紧急的, 极重要的The partial or complete confinement of waves is

**ubiquitous**in nature and in wave-based technology**ubiquitous**：普遍存在的;无处不在的The development, characterization, and control of N-photon sources are instrumental for quantum technological applications.

**instrumental**：Single-photon sources

**are one of the cornerstones**of many quantum information protocols**In the context of**quantum information technology, including quantum computing devices,**understanding the interaction between a few-photon state and a two-level atom**plays an important role**The capability to**create strong photon-photon interaction at a few-photon level in integrated photonic systems is of central importance for quantum information processing

来自Chatgpt的答案：

在表达重要观点或强调某一事实时，可以使用一些特定的句型和短语，以增强语气和引起注意。以下是一些常见的表达方式：

**强调句型**：- It is essential that…
- It is crucial to…
- It is of utmost importance to…
- What matters most is…

**使用副词**：- Extremely important…
- Significantly, …
- Notably, …
- Importantly, …

**强调短语**：- It should be noted that…
- It is worth emphasizing that…
- Of particular significance is…
- A key point to highlight is…

**使用形容词**：- Vital information…
- Essential details…
- Critical factors…
- Paramount considerations…

**在句子开头使用修饰语**：- Importantly, we must…
- Crucially, the research indicates…
- Of particular note is…

**在总结时强调**：- In conclusion, it is vital to…
- To sum up, the most important aspect is…
- In summary, we must recognize…

这些句型和短语可根据具体语境进行适当调整，有助于使表达更加突出和明确。

## 如何对参数依赖关系进行描述

## 介绍一个理论

- We start the formal description of the method by defining the main resource, namely, signal and idler photons in an entangled state

## 如何实现某个方案

- Now we analyze an implementation of the frequencyresolving measurement of the idler photon required in the proposed method. The measurement can be realized with a spectral filter followed by a single-photon time-resolving “click” detector.

## 总结某个表达式

**The expression implies**that individual detection of signal and idler photons results in homogeneous distribution of photocounts within the time interval tu, while joint detection reveals correlation of photons within the characteristic time tc.**This expression represents the main result of the paper**. Namely, the temporal shape of the heralded single-photon pulse is defined by the modulation function in the heralding arm.### 举例说明

As a first example of our formalism, we consider the scattering on an empty one-sided cavity with resonance frequency

- As an example of a system that scatters a single input pulse into a multimode output, we consider phase noise in the system, e.g., due to a jittering of one of the cavity mirrors on a timescale
- As a final example, we apply our theory to a recent experiment by Hacker

## 背景部分

### 前者的不足之处在于：

There are, however, several reasons for which the semiclassical treatment is not completely satisfactory

### 我们做了什么

Furthermore, we estimate

**figures of merit**such as heralding probability and state purity of the produced shaped photons as well as achievable temporal durations of the photons

figures of merit： 因数，佳度，Q值

## 文章结尾

In conclusion, we have proposed a method·····

To summarize, we have observed the fourth-order interference of two individual photons impinging on a beam splitter in a time-resolved manner.

**We therefore conclude that**a temporal filter, which accepts only time intervals between photodetections shorter than the mutual coherence time, is a way to obtain nearly perfect two-photon interference, even if the coherence properties of the photons are not ideal.**This makes**linear optical quantum computing [9]**much more feasible**with today’s technology.The theory contributes an

**unified**understanding to a variety of the two-photon interference effects.

## 经典文章赏析

### 文献1：PRX Quantum 4, 030326 (2023).

#### 摘要部分

- Quadratic light-matter interactions are nonlinear couplings
**such that**quantum emitters interact with photonic or phononic modes**exclusively**via the exchange of excitation pairs.

exclusively: 专门地;专有地

这句话对“Quadratic light-matter interactions”做了一个解释，用到了长句以及一些副词来修饰，解释的非常清楚到位

Implementable with atomic and solid-state systems, these couplings

**lead to a plethora of phenomena**that have been characterized**in the context of**cavity QED,**where quantum emitters interact with localized bosonic modes**.

介绍这些耦合的意义，还是非常长的表述。***We develop**a general scattering theory**under the Markov approximation**and**discuss paradigmatic examples**for spontaneous emission and scattering of biphoton states.

这是经常会用到的表达，比如，相似的还有：We propose·····**paradigmatic examples**: 范例的Our analytical and semianalytical

**results unveil fundamental differences**with respect to conventional waveguide QED systems, such as the spontaneous emission frequency-entangled photon pairs or the full transparency of the emitter to single-photon inputs.**unveil**: 揭去…的面罩，除去…的遮盖物**This unlocks new opportunities in**（重点句式）quantum information processing with propagating photons.**As a striking example**（重点句式）, we show that a single quadratically coupled emitter can implement a two-photon logic gate with unit fidelity,**circumventing a no-go theorem**derived for conventional waveguide-QED interactions

#### 背景介绍部分

The study of light-matter interactions is one of the main research pillars of quantum science.

介绍光与物质相互作用的重要性，如果是我写，肯定是：light-matter interaction is the central problem in quantum science，这里换了一个说法： main research pillars of**The implementation of systems**where quantum emitters interact strongly with confined modes of the electromagnetic fields has allowed us to**achieve an unprecedented level of control over quantum degrees of freedom**

我之前一直想表达的一个观点：随着我们对光与物质相互作用的控制更加自如，强耦合已经可以实现，这段话就说的比较流畅**In the framework of cavity QED**, the confinement of the electromagnetic field**makes it possible**to observe a coherent exchange of excitations between**localized photonic modes**and single quantum emitters [3]. Similarly, the**coupling of quantum emitters to propagating fields**can be strongly enhanced using waveguide structures, which**confine photons to a one-dimensional environment**

对Waveguide-QED的介绍，以Cavity-QED作为对比- This setup, known as waveguide QED,
**has been realized in a variety of platforms**such as atoms [6–9] or quantum dots [10,11] coupled to photonic waveguides,**as well as**superconducting qubits [12–20] coupled to microwave transmission lines.

如何介绍、罗列多个系统

- This setup, known as waveguide QED,
Waveguide QED structures

**have a great potential to****implement building blocks of quantum networks**[21,22],**since propagating photons are ideal to transport flying qubits over long distances while emitters can provide the strong quantum nonlinearity necessary for quantum information processing.**

这句话重要是因为其对Waveguide-QED的评价，特别是对传播光子、Emitter的作用。Therefore, there has been intense theoretical [23–30] and experimental [31–36] research in the control and characterization of few-photon correlations generated by single quantum emitters, as well as in the implementation of photonic devices working at the few-photon level

这是对领域内的研究的一个评价，说明理论、实验都比较重要.The rich quantum phenomenology

**arising in**quadratic light-matter interactions**motivates**a fast-growing interest

如何来形容某一个领域的重要性#### Introdution结尾部分

In this work,

**we develop**a quantum optics theory to describe a single quantum emitter interacting quadratically with the photons that propagate along a one-dimensional waveguide.***We study this problem**with a two-photon scattering theory based on a Wigner-Weisskopf approach and the Born-Markov approximation.**We derive**the general form of the scattering matrix, including semianalytical solutions for arbitrary photonic input states and full analytical solutions for Gaussian inputs.**Applying this theory, we unveil observable features of**the emitter’s response that are**fundamentally different****with respect to**conventional waveguide QED setups (see Fig. 1). These include (i) the spontaneous emission of correlated biphoton states, (ii) the strong interaction with spectrally narrow two-photon pulses, and (iii) full transparency to single-photon inputs.- Finally, we show that
**these effects can be exploited in quantum information applications**, designing a deterministic controlled-phase gate that acts on pairs of propagating photons with perfect fidelity. This result seems to contradict a famous no-go theorem for photonic gates [40,79,80].

#### 正文介绍部分

It is convenient to

**reparameterize**the wave function’s element using the sum and difference of photon frequenciesIn this limit

**one can formally solve**Eq. (5) and replace the solution into Eq. (4) to obtain**For the sake of clarity**, let us first write the scattering relations for a fixed propagation direction of the input field along the waveguide.

#### 结尾

- As demonstrated in this work, quadratic light-matter couplings
**are a compelling tool to process quantum information**encoded in propagating photons. - This possibility
**should be thoroughly addressed**considering each specific experimental setting, with a detailed microscopic model of the system and realistic noise sources. **The possibility of tailoring the spectral features of emitted and scattered biphoton states paves also the way to the generation of entanglement in the time-frequency domain**,**which is relevant for**quantum computation [85] and sensing [86–88] applications.

对什么有意义，也可以用 be relevant for